Mature coniferous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests (Martin 1960, Franzreb 1978, Noon et al. 1980, Sabo 1980, Douglas et al. 1992). In northern part of range, found in areas where conifers intergrade with aspen and willow forests (Drury 1953, Theberge 1976). Much less common in early successional stages of coniferous forests (Parker et al. 1994) and in hardwoods (Holmes et al. 1986). Found from lowland valleys to treeline in the Yukon (Alexander et al. 2003).
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Douglas, D.C., J.T. Ratti, R. A. Black, and J.R. Alldredge. 1992. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of Idaho’s Centennial Mountains. Wilson Bulletin 104:485-500.
Drury, W. H. Jr. 1953. Birds of the Saint Elias quadrangle in the southwestern Yukon Territory. Can. Field Nat. 67:103-128.
Franzreb, K. E. 1978. Tree species used by birds in logged and unlogged mixed-coniferous forests. Wilson Bull. 90: 221-238.
Holmes, R. T., T. W. Sherry, and F. W. Sturges. 1986. Bird community dynamics in a temperate deciduous forest: long-term trends at Hubbard Brook. Ecological Monographs 56:201-220.
Martin, N. D. 1960. An analysis of bird populations in relation to forest succession in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Ecology 41: 126-140.
Noon, B. R., D. K. Dawson, D. B. Inkly, C. S. Robbins, and S. H. Anderson. 1980. Consistency in habitat preference of forest bird species. Transactions North American Wildlife Natural Resources Conference 45:226-244.
Parker, G. R., D. G. Kimball, and B. Dalzell. 1994. Bird communities breeding in selected spruce and pine plantations in New Brunswick. Can. Field-Nat. 108: 1-9.
Sabo, S. R. 1980. Niche and habitat relations in subalpine bird communities of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, U.S.A. Ecological Monographs 50:241-60.
Theberge, J. B. 1976. Bird populations in the Kluane Mountains, southwest Yukon, Canada with special reference to vegetation and fire. Can. J. Zool. 54: 1386-1356.