Very specific requirements for early successional trees for nesting and feeding, including aspen, birch, maple, and mixed conifer forests. Prefers riparian zones up to 2000 m, especially in quaking aspen and birch (Short 1982, Eberhardt 1994, Winkler et al. 1995). Many nest sites are on the forest edge adjacent to water bodies, such as lakes, ponds, marshes, and backwater river channels (Campbell et al. 1990).
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1 and 2, Nonpasserines. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Eberhardt, L. S. 1994. Sap-feeding and its consequences for reproductive success and communication in Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus varius). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Short, L. L. 1982. Woodpeckers of the world. Delaware Mus. Nat. Hist., Monograph Series 4, Greenville, DE.
Winkler, H., D. A. Christie, and D. Nurney. 1995. Woodpeckers. An identification guide to the woodpeckers of the world. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.