Open areas in moist mixed deciduous-coniferous woodlands, bogs with scattered trees, and shrub thickets (NatureServe 2007b). Also found in avalanche chutes on steep slopes (Campbell et al. 2001). In Yukon, commonly found in medium to tall shrubs (willow, alder, and dwarf birch; Alexander et al. 2003). Often associated with wetlands, creeks, rivers, lake edges, subalpine areas, and burns (Alexander et al. 2003). Also, overgrown clear-cuts in montane and boreal zone. May occur in alpine zone (Finch 1989). In Alaska, density is associated with percent shrub cover (Cotter and Andres 2000). In B.C., breeds from sea level on the coast to timberline in the mountains (Campbell et al. 2001).
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, A. C. Stewart, and M. C. E. McNall. 2001. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 4. Passerines: wood-warblers through Old World sparrows. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 739 pages.
Cotter, P. A. and B. A. Andres. 2000. Breeding bird habitat associations on the Alaska Breeding Bird Survey: USGS, Biological Resources Division Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR-2000- 0010, 53 p.
Finch, D. 1989. Habitat use and habitat overlap of riparian birds in three elevational zones. Ecology 70:866-880.
NatureServe. 2007b. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.