Within Alaska, breeds along sea cliffs, river banks, and coastal villages (Kessel 1989). Along sea coasts, uses grassy terraces with overhanging vegetation and associated with seabird colonies (Kistchinski 1980).
Kessel, B. 1989. Birds of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: their biogeography, seasonality, and natural history. Univ. of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, AK. 330 pp.
Kistchinski, A. A. 1980. Birds of the Koryak Highlands. Nauka, Moscow.