Broad range of habitat use. Can be found from sea level to high mountain elevations; usually in open, non- forested areas near water. Primarily terrestrial, they enter water to breed in a variety of ponds, lakes, streams, backwaters, ephemeral and sometimes brackish pools. Hibernates in burrows below frostline in forested cover adjacent to aquatic habitat. Eggs develop in shallow areas of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, or in pools of slow moving streams. Western toads may be limited by temperature, acidity, and dissolved oxygen (Hodge 1976, MacDonald 2003).
Hodge, R.P. 1976. Amphibians & reptiles in Alaska, the Yukon, & Northwest Territories. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AK. 89 p.
MacDonald, S.O. 2003. The amphibians and reptiles of Alaska. A Field Handbook. Unpublished report to USFWS, Juneau, AK.