Open coniferous and mixed coniferous woodlands; Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, spruce fir, mixed coniferous, riparian woodlands (Jewett et al. 1953, Kessel and Gibson 1976, Francis and Lumbis 1980, Walters 1983, Andrews and Righter 1992, Small 1994). Often found at the edge of western Hemlock/ Sitka spruce forests in southeast Alaska (Armstrong 2008) and numerous in edge and ecotone habitats elsewhere, such as openings for beaver ponds, meadows, and tree copses (Campbell et al. 2001).
Andrews, R. and R. Righter. 1992. Colorado birds: a reference to their distribution and habitat. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist., Denver, CO.
Armstrong, R. H. 2008. Guide to the birds of Alaska. 5th edition. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage, AK. 360 pp.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, A. C. Stewart, and M. C. E. McNall. 2001. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 4. Passerines: wood-warblers through Old World sparrows. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 739 pages.
Francis, J. and K. Lumbis. 1980. Habitat relationships and management of terrestrial birds in northeastern Alberta. Prep for the Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program by Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton. AOSERP report no. 78.
Jewett, S. G., W. P. Taylor, W.T. Shaw, and J. W. Aldrich. 1953. Birds of Washington State. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington.
Kessel, B. and D. D. Gibson. 1976. Status and distribution of Alaska birds. Stud. Avian Biol. no. 1.
Small, A. 1994. California birds: their status and distribution. Ibis Publ. Co., Vista, CA.
Walters, R. E., ed. 1983. Utah bird distribution: latilong study 1983. Utah Div. Wildl. Res., Salt Lake City.