Breeds on tundra lakes, ponds, and pools, primarily in coastal deltas and less frequently inland to treeline. Prefers lakes with pondweed (Potamogeton spp.) (Monda 1991, Spindler and Hall 1991). In Bristol Bay lowlands, breed along coast and in broad drainage basins with little relief, wet meadows, and shallow lakes with littoral emergent vegetation (Wilk 1988). On the Colville River Delta, prefers large lakes that are connected to a river channel or are partially drained, and utilize polygon lakes and moist tundra near the water’s edge (Earnst 1992). Primary emergent vegetation includes Carex aquatilis and Arctophila fulva, and primary moist vegetation includes Carex spp., Puccinellia phryganodes, Dupontia fisheri, and Stellaria humifusa (Limpert and Earnst 1994).
Earnst, S. L. 1992. Behavior and ecology of Tundra Swans during summer, autumn, and winter. Ph. D. diss., Ohio State Univ., Columbus.
Limpert, R. J. and S. L. Earnst. 1994. Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus). In The Birds of North America, Vol. 3, No. 89 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union.
Monda, M. J. 1991. Reproductive ecology of Tundra Swans on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Ph. D. diss., Univ. Idaho, Moscow.
Spindler, M. A. and K. F. Hall. 1991. Local movements and habitat use of Tundra or Whistling Swans Cygnus columbianus in the Kobuk-Selawik lowlands of northwest Alaska. Wildfowl 42: 17-32.
Wilk, R. J. 1988. Distribution, abundance, population structure and productivity of Tundra Swans in Bristol Bay, Alaska. Arctic 41: 288-292.