Strongly associated with coniferous forests (spruce-fir; Garrett and Dunn 1981). Found in coastal Douglas- hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest (Jewett et al. 1953). Preference for mature forests and earlier successional habitats has been documented, but associations in Pacific Northwest have been inconclusive ranging from mesic old growth in Washington to mature unlogged stands along streams in Oregon, to 84% of nests associated with undisturbed forests in BC (Manuwal 1991, McGarigal and McComb 1992, Campbell et al. 1997). Equally abundant in young, mature, and old-growth (Carey et al. 1991). In Alaska taiga, found in forests where canopy cover, tree height, and canopy thickness were greater, and the shrub understory layer was relatively open (Kessel 1998). In southeast Alaska, BBS found this species commonly in shrub and needleleaf habitats, in southcentral Alaska commonly in forest habitat, and in central Alaska in a variety of forest habitats including needleleaf, broadleaf, and mixed forests (Cotter and Andres 2000).
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M. C. E. McNall, and G. E. J. Smith. 1997. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 3. Passerines: flycatchers through vireos. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 693 pages.
Carey, A. B., M. M. Hardt, S. P. Horton, and B. L. Biswell. 1991. Spring bird communities in the Oregon Coast Range. Pages 123-142 in L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, A.B. Carey, and M.H. Huff, technical coordinators. Wildlife and Vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. USDA, USFS, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285, Portland, OR.
Cotter, P. A. and B. A. Andres. 2000. Breeding bird habitat associations on the Alaska Breeding Bird Survey: USGS, Biological Resources Division Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR-2000- 0010, 53 p.
Garrett, K. and J. Dunn. 1981. Birds of southern California status and distribution. Los Angeles Audubon Society, Los Angeles, CA.
Jewett, S. G., W. P. Taylor, W.T. Shaw, and J. W. Aldrich. 1953. Birds of Washington State. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington.
Kessel, B. 1998. Habitat characteristics of some passerine birds in western North American taiga. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, AK.
Manuwal, D. A. 1991. Spring bird communities in the southern Washington Cascade Range. Pages 161- 174 IN L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, technical coordinators. Wildlife and Vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. USDA, USFS, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285, Portland, OR.
McGarigal, K., and W. C. McComb. 1992. Streamside versus upslope breeding bird communities in the central Oregon Coast Range. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:10-23.