Arctic rocky shores, cliffs, stony escarpments and dry tundra; in migration and winter in grassy or weedy fields, stubble, and along roadsides and shores of lakes and oceans (AOU 1983). May venture far out on ice-covered Arctic Ocean (Johnson and Herter 1989). Nests on ground in bare rocky areas; nest usually well hidden in crevice. May also nest in bird house, cabin, pipeline support, or other structure, or under beach debris.
AOU. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. 6th ed.American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D. C.
Johnson, S. R. and D. R. Herter. 1989. The Birds of the Beaufort Sea. BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, AK. 372 pp.