Breeds in open country, generally avoiding heavily forested land (Bent 1942). Breeding also occurs in or around buildings or other man-made structures (Campbell et al. 1997). In Alaska, found near cliffs in mountains and uplands (Armstrong 2008). Also nests along banks of rivers and lakes, canyons, rocky outcroppings, and mountainsides (Campbell et al. 1997). Usually nests near water (Alexander et al. 2003). In B.C., breeds between 270 and 1,860 m elevation (Campbell et al. 1997).
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Armstrong, R. H. 2008. Guide to the birds of Alaska. 5th edition. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage, AK. 360 pp.
Bent, A.C. 1942. Life histories of North American flycatchers, larks, swallows, and their allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 179. Washington, DC.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M. C. E. McNall, and G. E. J. Smith. 1997. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 3. Passerines: flycatchers through vireos. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 693 pages.