Inhabit old growth, second growth, thickets, and shrubby hillsides (AOU 1983). Nests in tree, shrubs, or vine, about 1-15 meters (usually less than 5 meters) above ground (e.g., in blackberry bush, huckleberry bush, overhanging vine, alder, drooping branch of conifer, among roots of fallen tree, crown of deciduous tree; Johnsgard 1983). In Southeast, found in hemlock spruce forests (early successional to old growth), deciduous woodlands, muskeg forests, riparian shrubs, and scrub forests (Pogson et al. 1997).
AOU. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. 6th ed.American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D. C.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1983. Hummingbirds of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 304 pp.
Pogson, T. H., S. E. Quinlan, and B. Lehnhausen. 1997. A manual of selected neotropical migrant birds of Alaska national forests. USDA, USFS, Juneau, AK.