Typically select marshy islands for nest sites or on dry shores. Nest on small oligotrophic lakes in diverse habitats, such as forests, or tundra up to 1070 m. Select partially drained shallow ponds with stands of Carex aquatilis. Select smaller ponds that thaw earlier. Availability of freshwater fish limits distribution; higher reproductive success was found for those nesting within 9 km of marine foraging habitat (Soper 1946, Palmer 1962, Davis 1972, Bundy 1976, Bergman and Derksen 1977, Cramp and Simmons 1977, Merrie 1978, Derksen
et al. 1981, Furness 1983, Reimchen and Douglas 1984, Johnsgard 1987, Douglas and Reimchen 1988, Eberl and Picman 1993, Barr et al. 2000).
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Bergman, R. D. and D. V. Derksen. 1977. Observations on Arctic and Red-throated loons at Storkersen Point, Alaska, Arctic 30:41-51.
Bundy, G. 1976. Breeding biology of the red-throated diver. Bird Study 23:149-256.
Cramp, S. and K. E. L. Simmons, eds. 1977. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 1. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.
Davis, R.A. 1972. A comparative study of the use of habitat by arctic loons and red-throated loons. Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Western Ontario, London.
Derksen, D.V., T.C. Rothe, and W.D. Eldridge. 1981. Use of wetland habitats by birds in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. Resource Pub. 141. USFWS, Washington, D.C. 27 pp.
Douglas, S.D. and T.E. Reimchen. 1988. Habitat characteristics and population estimate of breeding red- throated loons, Gavia stellata, on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Canad. Field-Naturalist 102:679-684.
Eberl, C. and J. Picman. 1993. Effect of nest-site location on reproductive success of Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata). The Auk 110: 436-444.
Furness, R. W. 1983. Pages 18-30 in Foula, Shetland, Volume 4. Birds of Foula. The Brathay Hall Trust, Amblesidae, Cumbria.
Johnsgard, P.A. 1987. Diving birds of North America. Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE. 292 pp.
Merrie, T.D.H. 1978. Relationship between spatial distribution of breeding divers and the availability of fishing waters. Bird Study 25: 119-122.
Palmer, R. S., ed. 1962. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 1: loons through flamingoes. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Reimchen, T.E. and S. Douglas. 1984. Feeding schedule and daily food consumption in red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) over the prefledging period. Auk 101:593-599.
Soper, J. D. 1946. Ornithological results of the Baffin Island expeditions of 1928-1929 and 1930-1931, together were more recent records. Auk 63:1-24, 223-239, 418-427. 127