Occupies a variety of habitats from tundra to boreal forests, steppe, and temperate deserts (Lariviere and Pasitschniak-Arts 1996). Primarily inhabits open and semi-open habitats. Usually avoids dense forest, although open woodlands frequently are used. Sometimes occurs in suburban areas or even cities. May range onto sea ice (Labrador). Maternity dens are in burrows dug by fox or abandoned by other mammals, often in open fields or wooded areas, sometimes under rural buildings, in hollow logs, under stumps, etc. (NatureServe 2007b). In British Columbia red foxes are most common in mixed forests that are interspersed with meadows (Ables 1971).
Ables, E. D. 1971. Ecology of the red fox in North America. In: M. W. Fox, ed. The wild canids. New York: Van Nostand Reinhold Co: 216-235.
Lariviere, S., and M. Pasitschniak-Arts. 1996. VULPES VULPES. Mammalian Species (537):1-11. NatureServe. 2007b. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.2.
NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.