Inhabits mature stands, but may not be obligate old-growth species (Andres 1999b). Nests in hemlock/spruce forests in Alaska (Gibson 1976). Often nests at forest edge near marsh, lake or other opening. Research has documented more frequent use of dead trees compared to live trees (Andres 1999b). Nests from sea level to 1,2220 m in British Columbia (Campbell et al. 1990).
Andres, B.A. 1999b. Landbird conservation plan for Alaska biogeographic regions. Version 1.0. Boreal Partners in Flight Working Group. October 1999. USFWS, Anchorage, Alaska.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1 and 2, Nonpasserines. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Gibson, D. D. 1976. Bird species and habitat inventory: Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, summer 1975. University of Alaska Museum Contract Report No. 01-283. U. S. For. Serv. 66pp.