Open coniferous forest and forest edge near treeline in taiga, coastal forests of Sitka spruce, montane black and white spruce forests. Associated with water (Adkisson 1999). Nests in trees or shrubs in open coniferous woods (Terres 1980). On Alaska Peninsula found in alder thickets beyond treeline (Gibson, pers. comm. in Adkisson 1999). May also occur in human made open forests, such as those disturbed by partial logging (Adkisson 1999). In winter, typically descends to lower elevations and inhabits coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests, woodlands, second growth, shrubbery, forest edges and openings, and bird feeders in human settlements (NatureServe 2007b, Campbell et al. 2001, Alexander et al. 2003).
Adkisson, C. S. 1999. Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator). In The Birds of North America, Vol. 7, No. 456 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union.
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, A. C. Stewart, and M. C. E. McNall. 2001. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 4. Passerines: wood-warblers through Old World sparrows. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 739 pages.
NatureServe. 2007b. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.
Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY.