In Alaska, breeds in brushy and open deciduous woodlands, shrub thickets, and mixed forests, and coniferous forest edges where low growth is present (Bent 1953, Godfrey 1986, Armstrong 2008). In B.C., breeds from sea level to 420 m elevation on the coast and 300 to 1,200 m in the interior and is associated with dense thickets, bushes, or shrubs (Campbell et al. 2001). In the Yukon, reported in lowlands and up to and beyond treeline (Frisch 1987).
Armstrong, R. H. 2008. Guide to the birds of Alaska. 5th edition. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage, AK. 360 pp.
Bent, A. C. 1953. Life histories of North American wood warblers. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 203. Washington, DC.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, A. C. Stewart, and M. C. E. McNall. 2001. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 4. Passerines: wood-warblers through Old World sparrows. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 739 pages.
Frisch, R. 1987. Birds by the Dempster highway. Revised edition. Morriss Printing, Victoria, B.C. 98 pp.
Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. 595 pp.