Breeds in cool, dark wooded swamps, thickets of bogs, near northern lakes and willow and alder riparian areas (Godfrey 1986, Peck and James 1987), often associated with water and shrubs (Alexander et al. 2003). In Alaska, mainly nests in spruce bogs, along alder and willow riparian areas, and along lakes, swamps, and wet woodlands (Godfrey 1986). In B.C., nests between 405 and 1,350 m elevation (Campbell et al. 2001).
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, A. C. Stewart, and M. C. E. McNall. 2001. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 4. Passerines: wood-warblers through Old World sparrows. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 739 pages.
Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. 595 pp.
Peck, G.K., and R.D. James. 1987. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution, volume 2. Passerines. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario.