Nest usually within 0.8 km of water (Palmer 1976). In the Yukon, this species nest among shrubs, and other low vegetation associated with lakes, rivers, and wetlands and females and young utilize marshy areas (Alexander et al. 2003). In B.C., breeds from sea level to 1,300 m in sloughs, marshes, lakes, swamps, islands, riparian woodlands, city parks, agricultural fields, and private yards (Campbell et al. 1990).
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1 and 2, Nonpasserines. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Palmer, R. S., editor. 1976. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 2. Waterfowl (first part). Whistling ducks, swans, geese, sheld-ducks, dabbling ducks. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. 521 pp.