Breeds in forested freshwater wetland systems (Dugger et al. 1994), including rivers, lakes, marshes, streams, sloughs, and beaver ponds (Campbell et al. 1990). Winters on shallow, freshwater and brackish bays, estuaries, and tidal creeks and ponds, where they often concentrate along the edges of ice (e.g., Veit and Petersen 1993, Sibley 1993).
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1 and 2, Nonpasserines. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
￼￼Dugger, B. D., and K. M. Dugger, and L. H. Fredrickson. 1994. Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus). In The Birds of North America. Vol. 3, No. 98 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union.
Sibley, D. 1993. The birds of Cape May. New Jersey Audubon Society, Cape May Point, NJ.
Veit, R. R. and W. R. Petersen. 1993. Birds of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln.