Breeding habitat open forest and scrub from sea level extending into tundra. In southwest Alaska, riparian shrub and low-shrub habitats with scattered and stunted conifers, shrub, dwarf birch, willow, and alder at high elevations. Nests in open tundra, in areas sparsely vegetated with low scattered willows and alders, often near water; in bushes 0.3-2 m above ground, or on ground near rocks or bushes, or in driftwood pile along coast (NatureServe 2007b). Feeds on tundra late in summer (Baldwin 1955).
Baldwin, P. H. 1955. The breeding ecology and physiological rhythms of some arctic birds at Umiat, Alaska. Final report. Office of Naval Res., and Arctic Inst. N. Am., Washington, D. C.
NatureServe. 2007b. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.