In central Alaska, mainly inhabit deciduous stands, especially mature aspen (Spindler and Kessel 1980). Occur in riparian deciduous forests in Southeast Alaska (Kessel and Gibson 1978, Armstrong 1995). Throughout the rest of their range, they are primarily found in dense coniferous forests (Sedgwick 1994). Prefers open mature stands (Spindler and Kessel 1980) of at least 10 ha (Sedgwick 1994). In B.C., breeds from sea level to 1,500 m in elevation, and generally nests at higher elevations than other Empidonax flycatchers in B.C. (Campbell et al. 1997).
Armstrong, R. H. 1995. Guide to the birds of Alaska, 4th ed. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage, AK. 322 pp.
￼￼￼Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M. C. E. McNall, and G. E. J. Smith. 1997. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 3. Passerines: flycatchers through vireos. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 693 pages.
Cotter, P. A. and B. A. Andres. 2000. Breeding bird habitat associations on the Alaska Breeding Bird Survey: USGS, Biological Resources Division Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR-2000- 0010, 53 p.
￼￼￼Kessel, B., and D.D. Gibson. 1978. Status and distribution of Alaska birds. Studies Avian Biology. In: Studies in Avian Biology No. 1. R. J. Raitt, Ed. Cooper Ornithological Society. 1:1-100.
Sedgwick, J. A. 1994. Hammond’s Flycatcher (EMPIDONAX HAMMONDII). InThe Birds of North America, No. 109 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union.
Spindler, M. A. and B. A. Kessel. 1980. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga. Syesis 13:61- 104.