Inhabits mature coniferous and deciduous forests during breeding season, but may occur in a wide range of habitat depending on geographic location. In B.C., occurs in all forest types up to 1900 m. Found in mature conifer forests near edges (Campbell et al. 1990). Forest, open woodland, swamps, well-wooded towns and parks, open situations with scattered trees. Most abundant in mature woods with large old trees suitable for cavity nesting; also common in medium-aged forests; prefers woods with a dense canopy (Bushman and Therres 1988 in ADF&G 2005a). Uses tree cavities for roosting and winter cover; may excavate new cavities in fall to be used for roosting (Sousa 1987 in ADF&G 2005a). Nests in self excavated cavity in live or dead tree or stub. In most areas, favors dead or dying parts of live trees, especially where fungal heart rot has softened the heartwood (NatureServe 2007b).
ADF&G. 2005a. Our wealth maintained: a strategy for conserving Alaska’s diverse wildlife and fish resources, a Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy emphasizing Alaska’s nongame species. Submitted to USFWS, Anchorage, AK.
￼￼Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1 and 2, Nonpasserines. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
NatureServe. 2007b. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.