Occurs in arctic tundra or arctic-alpine zone. Open stony or sandy areas, less frequently marshes, mudflats, seacoasts (AOU 1983). Nests on stony steppes, plains, newly plowed fields, and marginal grassland (AOU 1983); highlands and tundra in northwestern Alaska (National Geographic Society 1983). Favors open flat, unvegetated areas above or below treeline and below snow line.
AOU. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. 6th ed.American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D. C.
National Geographic Society. 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.