Lakes, ponds, rivers, lagoons, swamps, coastal bays, marine islands, and seacoasts; usually within sight of land. Nests on the ground or in trees in freshwater situations, and on coastal cliffs (usually high sloping areas with good visibility). Nest in trees in or near water, especially when predators present, in sandy or rocky islands, emergent vegetation in marshes, or artificial structures on islands free of predators. In the Yukon, this species is often seen on large lakes and rivers (Alexander et al. 2003).
Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Ecker, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop,
W. A. Nixon, and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory (P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes, eds.). UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.