Coniferous and deciduous forest, forest edge, clearings, bogs, open woodland, brushy areas adjacent to forest, and burned-over lands (AOU 1983). In Alaska, breeding habitat consists of old growth to earlier seral stages. Absent from closed dense canopy cover with low light, scant ground cover. Most abundant in shrub/forb and sapling/shrub, lakeshore old growth, and muskeg (Kessler and Kogut 1985). Occur on densely forested Alaskan islands, beaches, and epiphytic growth along streams (Miller 1941).
AOU. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. 6th ed.American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D. C.
￼￼Kessler, W. B. and T. E. Kogut. 1985. Habitat orientations of forest birds in southeastern Alaska. Northwest Science 59:58-65.
Miller, A. H. 1941. Speciation in the avian genus Junco. University of Junco. University of California Publ. Zool. 44:173-434.