Breeds in a variety of shrubby coniferous habitats, typically in open spaces and often with coniferous and deciduous woodlands, wetlands, cutblocks, or agricultural edges (Campbell et al. 2001). Found mostly along mainland rivers in Alaska (Armstrong 2008). In B. C. nests mainly in areas modified by human use. Open forests of Douglas-fir, western hemlock-western red cedar forest and scrubland are wildlands used in B. C. In taiga, nesting associated with wetlands surrounded by willow, alder, and birch patches. In B.C., breeds from sea level to 230 m on coast and valley bottoms to 1,950 m in interior (Campbell 2001).
Armstrong, R. H. 2008. Guide to the birds of Alaska. 5th edition. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage, AK. 360 pp.
￼Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, A. C. Stewart, and M. C. E. McNall. 2001. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 4. Passerines: wood-warblers through Old World sparrows. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 739 pages.