Inhabits boreal forests, mixed forests, muskeg bogs, birches and streamside willows, including young and mature spruce and sometimes balsam fir. In northern Alaska, occurs in a variety of forests, including spruce, mixed spruce, alder, and willow (Gabrielson and Lincoln 1959, Irving 1960).
Gabrielson, I. N. and F. C. Lincoln. 1959. The Birds of Alaska. The Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, PA and Wildl. Manage. Inst., Washington, D.C. 922 pp.
Irving, L. 1960. Birds of Anaktuvuk Pass, Kobuk, and Old Crow. A study in arctic adaptation. United States National Museum Bulletin 217. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 409 pp.