Breeding habitat is in wetland openings in and along edges of boreal forests, particularly around lakes, muskegs, and marshes (Godfrey 1986). Nests are usually <100 m from water (Peck and James 1983) and in conifer trees, often scattered trees on islands in lakes (Campbell et al. 1990). In B.C. breeds from 305 to 1,318 m in elevation (Campbell et al. 1990).
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia. Vol. 1 and 2, Nonpasserines. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C.
Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. 595 pp.
Peck, G. K. and R. D. James. 1983. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution. Vol. 1: nonpasserines. R. Ontario Mus. Life. Sci. Misc. Publ., Toronto.