Occurs throughout the taiga of central Alaska and becomes less common where taiga extends into forested areas (Kessel and Gibson 1978). Breeding habitat includes open coniferous or mixed forests, often recently burned or second growth edges and near water (Godfrey 1986, Cramp 1988, Scemenchuk 1992, Smith 1996, Campbell et al. 1997). Breeds in conifer dominated forest habitats with an abundance of berries and with damp open areas or bodies of water nearby. Beaver ponds, swamps, muskegs, and old burns considered good habitat. Favored habitat includes open mature coniferous forest edges, mainly spruce with aspens, alders, and willows interspersed. In the north, this habitat common in Boreal white and black spruce and lower spruce- willow-birch (Campbell et al. 1997).
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M. C. E. McNall, and G. E. J. Smith. 1997. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 3. Passerines: flycatchers through vireos. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 693 pages.
Cramp, S. ed. 1988. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 5. Oxford University Press, Oxford U.K.
Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. 595 pp.
Kessel, B., and D.D. Gibson. 1978. Status and distribution of Alaska birds. Studies Avian Biology. In: Studies in Avian Biology No. 1. R. J. Raitt, Ed. Cooper Ornithological Society. 1:1-100.
Semenchuk, G. P., ed. 1992. The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Fed. Of Alberta Nat., Edmonton.
Smith, A. R. 1996. Atlas of Saskatchewan birds. Sask. Nat. Hist. Soc. Spec. Publ. no. 22, Regina.