Nests in tundra, rocky talus slopes, and alpine meadows on drier ridges and foothills and above timberline (NatureServe 2007b, Armstrong 2008). In B.C., nests in alpine habitats throughout mountainous areas of the interior and to a lesser extent in coastal alpine habitats. Nests have been found from 600 to 2400m, but breeding always occurs in alpine habitats. Habitat during the breeding season consists of sparsely vegetated alpine tundra, heath meadows, more richly vegetated alpine meadows, boulder fields, scree slopes with scattered vegetation between rocks, cliff ledges, and gravelly stream beds. Nesting habitat is mainly in well- vegetated sites, from above timberline to rock and scree dominated areas. Nests are usually located on sloping hillsides (Campbell et al. 1997).
Armstrong, R. H. 2008. Guide to the birds of Alaska. 5th edition. Alaska Northwest Books, Anchorage, AK. 360 pp.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M. C. E. McNall, and G. E. J. Smith. 1997. The Birds of British Columbia. Volume 3. Passerines: flycatchers through vireos. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 693 pages.
NatureServe. 2007b. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.2. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.